Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) has a Price to Book ratio of 2.288171. This ratio has been calculated by dividing the current share price by the book value per share. Investors may use Price to Book to display how the market portrays the value of a stock. Checking in on some other ratios, the company has a Price to Cash Flow ratio of 4.657890, and a current Price to Earnings ratio of 8.991859. The P/E ratio is one of the most common ratios used for figuring out whether a company is overvalued or undervalued.

One of the most important factors that investors look at when examining stocks is the consistency of earnings results. When the quarterly earnings report is released, investors watch closely to see if the company is performing up to expectations. A company that fails to meet projections may see large price swings following the report. Of course one bad quarter may not signal trouble, but a company that continually disappoints during earnings season may need to be further examined to help figure out what is going on. Experienced investors will closely watch stock price movements before and after earnings events in order to gain a truer understanding of how the market is reacting to the reports.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) has a Value Composite score of 50. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 38.

Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) has a current MF Rank of 5725. Developed by hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt, the intention of the formula is to spot high quality companies that are trading at an attractive price. The formula uses ROIC and earnings yield ratios to find quality, undervalued stocks. In general, companies with the lowest combined rank may be the higher quality picks.

Further, we can see that Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) has a Shareholder Yield of 0.097177 and a Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of 0.05564. The first value is calculated by adding the dividend yield to the percentage of repurchased shares. The second value adds in the net debt repaid yield to the calculation. Shareholder yield has the ability to show how much money the firm is giving back to shareholders via a few different avenues. Companies may issue new shares and buy back their own shares. This may occur at the same time. Investors may also use shareholder yield to gauge a baseline rate of return.

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength.  The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not.  The Piotroski F-Score of Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) is 6.  A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock.  The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings.  It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue.  The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS). The name currently has a score of 10.00000. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

Individual investors often strive to create a solid strategy before trying to take on the market. Setting up realistic, attainable goals, may be a good place for the amateur to start. There are many different approaches that the investor can take when getting into the stock market. Some investors will try to follow strategies that have worked for others in the past. Sometimes this will work, and sometimes it will not. Markets and economic landscapes are constantly changing. A strategy that worked yesterday may not work again tomorrow. Investors who put in the time to do the necessary homework may find themselves much better off when the market decides to rear its ugly head at some point down the road. 

Volatility/PI
Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase.  Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year.  The Volatility 12m of Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) is 28.020200.  This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized.  The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility.  The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months.  The Volatility 3m of Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) is 21.992100.  The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months.  The Volatility 6m is 27.257300.

The Price Index is a ratio that indicates the return of a share price over a past period. The price index of Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) for last month was 1.03365. This is calculated by taking the current share price and dividing by the share price one month ago. If the ratio is greater than 1, then that means there has been an increase in price over the month. If the ratio is less than 1, then we can determine that there has been a decrease in price. Similarly, investors look up the share price over 12 month periods. The Price Index 12m for Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) is 0.99761.

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not.  One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA).  This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets.  The Return on Assets for Discover Financial Services (NYSE:DFS) is 0.026867.  

This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets.  A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

Stock market knowledge can be highly powerful. Successful investors are often highly knowledgeable and have put in the appropriate amount of time to become this way. Proper stock market knowledge may take a long time to acquire. Investors may spend countless hours trying to get an edge, and they may still feel like they are swimming upstream. Preparation and common sense can be highly important when trying to stay on top of the equity market. These days, there is no shortage of information for investors to get their hands on. The challenge then becomes how best to use the information at hand in order to develop knowledge that will help drive profits higher.

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